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THE BATTLE OF TOURS, 732.
A.D. 476. The Roman Empire of the West extinguished by Odoacer.
482. Establishment of the French monarchy in Gaul by Clovis.
455-482. The Saxons, Angles, and Frisians conquer Britain except the northern parts, and the districts along the west coast. The German conquerors found eight independent kingdoms.
533-568. The generals of Justinian, the Emperor of Constantinople, conquer Italy and North Africa; and these countries are for a short time annexed to the Roman Empire of the East.
568-570. The Lombards conquer great part of Italy.
570-627. The wars between the Emperors of Constantinople and the Kings of Persia are actively continued.
622. The Mahometan era of the Hegira. Mahomet is driven from Mecca, and is received as prince of Medina.
629-632. Mahomet conquers Arabia.
632-651. The Mahometan Arabs invade and conquer Persia.
632-709. They attack the Roman Empire of the East. They conquer Syria, Egypt, and Africa.
709-713. They cross the straits of Gibraltar, and invade and conquer Spain.
"At the death of Mohammad, in 632, his temporal and religious sovereignty embraced and was limited by the Arabian Peninsula. The Roman and Persian empires, engaged in tedious and indecisive hostility upon the rivers of Mesopotamia and the Armenian mountains, were viewed by the ambitious fanatics of his creed as their quarry. In the very first year of Mohammad's immediate successor, Abubeker, each of these mighty empires was invaded. The crumbling fabric of Eastern despotism is never secured against rapid and total subversion; a few victories, a few sieges, carried the Arabian arms from the Tigris to the Oxus, and overthrew, with the Sassanian dynasty, the ancient and famous religion they had professed. Seven years of active and unceasing warfare sufficed to subjugate the rich province of Syria, though defended by numerous armies and fortified cities; and the Khalif Omar had scarcely returned thanks for the accomplishment of this conquest, when Amrou, his lieutenant, announced to him the entire reduction of Egypt. After some interval, the Saracens won their way along the coast of Africa, as far as the Pillars of Hercules, and a third province was irretrievably torn from the Greek empire. These western conquests introduced them to fresh enemies, and ushered in more splendid successes. Encouraged by the disunion of the Visigoths, and invited by treachery, Musa, the general of a master who sat beyond the opposite extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, passed over into Spain, and within about two years the name of Mohammad was invoked under the Pyrenees." --[HALLAM.]
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